1, What is NIC card (network interface controller)
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such asEthernet, Wi-Fi or Token Ring. This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as IP. Although other network technologies exist (e.g.token ring ), Ethernet has achieved near-ubiquity since the mid-1990s.
Every network controller for an IEEE802 network such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or Token Ring, and every FDDI network controller, has a unique 48-bit serial number called a Media Access Control address, which is stored in read-only memory. Every computer on an Ethernet network must have at least one controller. Normally it is safe to assume that no two network controllers will share the same address, because controller vendors purchase blocks of addresses from theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and assign a unique address to each controller at the time of manufacture.
The NIC allows computers to communicate over acomputer network . It is both anOSI layer 1 (physical layer) and layer 2 (data line layer) device, as it provides physical access to a networking medium and, for IEEE 802 networks and FDDI, provides a low-level addressing system through the use of Media Access Control addresses.
--What is a network card
A network card is an expansion card that installs into a computer and enables that computer to physically connect to a local area network.
The most common form of network card in current use is the Ethernet card. Other types of network cards include wireless network cards and Token Ring network cards.
Other terms for network card include network adapter, network interface card (NIC).
--What is an Ethernet card
An Ethernet card is the communications hub for your computer; it connects to a network using a network cable. Ethernet cards can also communicate one-on-one with another Ethernet card, allowing for peer-to-peer network connections—these are useful for direct file sharing. The cable connection on the Ethernet card is called an RJ-45 connection, which connects to a variety of cable types, all capable of different transmission speeds.
2, What is fiber optic network design
Fiber optic network design refers to the specialized processes leading to a successful installation and operation of a fiber optic network. It includes determining the type of communication system(s) which will be carried over the network, the geographic layout (premises, campus, outside plant (OSP, etc.), the transmission equipment required and the fiber network over which it will operate. Next we have to consider requirements for permits, easements, permissions and inspections. Once we get to that stage, we can consider actual component selection, placement, installation practices, testing, troubleshooting and network equipment installation and startup. Finally, we have to consider documentation, maintenance and planning for restoration in event of an outage.
Design requires working with higher level network engineers usually from IT (information technology) departments and cable plant designers such as the architects and engineers overseeing a major project, as well as contractors involved with building the projects. Other groups like engineers or designers involved in aspects of project design such as security, CATV or industrial system designers or specialized designers like BICSI RCDDs for premises cabling may also be overseeing various parts of the project that involves the design and installation of fiber optic cable plants and systems.
Designers should have an in-depth knowledge of fiber optic components and systems and installation processes as well as all applicable standards, codes and any other local regulations. They must also be familiar with most telecom technology (cabled or wireless), site surveys, local politics, codes and standards, and where to find experts in those fields when help is needed. Obviously, the fiber optic network designer must be familiar with electrical power systems, since the electronic hardware must be provided with high quality uninterruptible power at every location. And if they work for a contractor, estimating will be a very important issue, as that is where a profit or loss can be determined!
Those involved in fiber optic project design should already have some background in fiber optics, such as having completed a FOA CFOT certification course, and may have other training in the specialties of cable plant design such as electrical contracting apprenticeship, RCDD, SCTE or ISA training, etc. It’s also very important to know how to find in-depth information, mostly on the web, about products, standards, codes and, for the OSP networks, how to use online mapping services like Google Maps. Experience with CAD systems is a definite plus.